He associated himself with a co-emperor Augustusand each co-emperor then adopted a young colleague given the title of Caesarto share in their rule and eventually to succeed the senior partner.
He was driven from power inand took shelter first with the Khazars and then with the Bulgarians. Belisarius, who had been sent back to Italy inwas eventually recalled to Constantinople in The Ostrogoths were soon reunited under the command of King Totila and captured Rome in After this, the Sassanid army was forced to withdraw to Anatolia.
In the 5th century the Eastern part of the empire was largely spared the difficulties faced by the West—due in part to a more established urban culture and greater financial resources, which allowed it to placate invaders with tribute and pay foreign mercenaries.
By urging Theodoric to conquer Italy, Zeno rid the Eastern Empire of an unruly subordinate Odoacer and moved another Theodoric further from the heart of the Empire.
After Justinian died inhis successor, Justin IIrefused to pay the large tribute to the Persians. This older name of the city would rarely be used from this point onward except in historical or poetic contexts.
In the same year, he survived a revolt in Constantinople the Nika riotswhich solidified his power but ended with the deaths of a reported 30, to 35, rioters on his orders. Res Publica Romana; Greek: Half of the Italian peninsula and some part af Spain were lost, but the borders were pushed eastward where Byzantines received some land from the Persians.
Nevertheless, Hellenistic philosophy began to be gradually supplanted by or amalgamated into newer Christian philosophy. The empire held on to a small slice of the Iberian Peninsula coast until the reign of Heraclius.
Arcadius in the East and Honorius in the West, once again dividing Imperial administration. Constantine established the principle that emperors could not settle questions of doctrine on their own, but should summon instead general ecclesiastical councils for that purpose.
To fend off the HunsTheodosius had to pay an enormous annual tribute to Attila. This system may have had its roots in certain ad hoc measures taken by Heraclius, but over the course of the 7th century it developed into an entirely new system of imperial governance.
Byzantium under the Constantinian and Valentinian dynasties To maintain control and improve administration, various schemes to divide the work of the Roman Emperor by sharing it between individuals were tried between andfrom tofrom toand again between and The tetrarchy collapsed, however, in and a few years later Constantine I reunited the two administrative divisions of the Empire as sole Augustus.
He was eventually deposed in by Heracliuswho sailed to Constantinople from Carthage with an icon affixed to the prow of his ship. Although the administrative subdivisions varied, they generally involved a division of labour between East and West.
In the Byzantine Empire had lost all of its southern provinces except the Exarchate of Africa to the Caliphate. Eventually, the Persians were obliged to withdraw all armed forces and return Sassanid-ruled Egyptthe Levant and whatever imperial territories of Mesopotamia and Armenia were in Roman hands at the time of an earlier peace treaty in c.
This success allowed Theodosius II to focus on the codification of Roman law and further fortification of the walls of Constantinoplewhich left the city impervious to most attacks until These territories were home to many different cultural groups, both urban populations and rural populations.
Completed inthe Hagia Sophia stands today as one of the major monuments of Byzantine architectural history. The Arabs, now firmly in control of Syria and the Levantsent frequent raiding parties deep into Asia Minor, and in — laid siege to Constantinople itself.
The western part collapsed in the s while the eastern part ended with the capture of Constantinople At the same time the Slavs laid pressure and settled in the Balkans.
Pagan festivals and sacrifices were banned, as was access to all pagan temples and places of worship. Meanwhile, the Germanic Lombards invaded Italy; by the end of the century, only a third of Italy was in Byzantine hands.
The strengthening of the Danube fleet caused the Kutrigur Huns to withdraw and they agreed to a treaty that allowed safe passage back across the Danube. The closure of the Platonic Academy in was a notable turning point. InByzantine forces sent to disperse these new settlements were defeated.
The war had exhausted both the Byzantines and Sassanids, however, and left them extremely vulnerable to the Muslim forces that emerged in the following years. The city also lost the free grain shipments inafter Egypt fell first to the Persians and then to the Arabs, and public wheat distribution ceased.
He introduced a new coinage system of the copper follisthe coin used in most everyday transactions. The Byzantine Empire in — Because of the Byzantine—Sasanian War of — both Byzantines and Persians exhausted themselves and made them vulnerable for the expansion of the Caliphate. Inattempting to secure his eastern frontier, Justinian signed a peace treaty with Khosrau I of Persiaagreeing to pay a large annual tribute to the Sassanids.
Inemperor Diocletian created a new administrative system the tetrarchyto guarantee security in all endangered regions of his Empire. Inthe Corpus was updated and, along with the enactments promulgated by Justinian afterformed the system of law used for most of the rest of the Byzantine era.
With his final overthrow insupported once more by the urban aristocracy, the Heraclian dynasty came to an end.
Imperium Graecorum in the West to refer to the Eastern Roman Empire and of the Byzantine Emperor as Imperator Graecorum Emperor of the Greeks  were also used to separate it from the prestige of the Roman Empire within the new kingdoms of the West.The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).It survived the fragmentation and fall of the .Download